Genotoxicity: mechanisms and its impact on human diseases

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Rashmi Srivastava, Nidhi Mishra, Uma M. Singh and Rakesh Srivastava

Department of Zoology, University of Allahabad, Allahabad, India

International Rice Research Institute, South Asia Rice Breeding Hub, Patencheru Hyderabad India

Division of Molecular and Life Sciences, College of Science and Technology, Hanyang University, Ansan, Republic of Korea

 The most important danger of living and working in a very complex and technologically advanced society is that we are consistently exposed to several hazardous toxic substances that contaminate our living environments. These hazardous substances are mainly of anthropogenic origin, more or less have property to induce genotoxicity directly or indirectly, andmay lead to the onset of many diseases like asthma, hypertension, neurodegenerative diseases and several types of cancers in human population. These substances include different types of radiations, food preservatives, coloring agents, industrial wastes, heavy metals, fungal and bacterial toxins, etc. Genotoxicity is the mechanism by which cell injury is induced and cause direct alterations and modifications of the genetic material and includes DNA damage, gene mutation, chromosomal defects and aberrations of genetic content. The present review is an attempt to discuss the effects of these hazards on human health in the wake of genotoxicity alterations in exposed cells either due to occupational or accidental process, including carcinogenesis.

Keywords: Genotoxicity; Genome; DNA damage; Genome instability; Mutation; Cancer

 

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