Determination of Fluoride Concentration in Ground Water of Muddanur Area of YSR Kadapa District (AP) India

  • strict warning: Non-static method view::load() should not be called statically in /home3/scientl5/public_html/sciencebeingjournal.com/sites/all/modules/views/views.module on line 1113.
  • strict warning: Declaration of views_handler_field::query() should be compatible with views_handler::query($group_by = false) in /home3/scientl5/public_html/sciencebeingjournal.com/sites/all/modules/views/handlers/views_handler_field.inc on line 1147.
  • strict warning: Declaration of content_handler_field::element_type() should be compatible with views_handler_field::element_type($none_supported = false, $default_empty = false, $inline = false) in /home3/scientl5/public_html/sciencebeingjournal.com/sites/all/modules/cck/includes/views/handlers/content_handler_field.inc on line 229.
  • strict warning: Declaration of views_handler_filter::options_validate() should be compatible with views_handler::options_validate($form, &$form_state) in /home3/scientl5/public_html/sciencebeingjournal.com/sites/all/modules/views/handlers/views_handler_filter.inc on line 587.
  • strict warning: Declaration of views_handler_filter::query() should be compatible with views_handler::query($group_by = false) in /home3/scientl5/public_html/sciencebeingjournal.com/sites/all/modules/views/handlers/views_handler_filter.inc on line 587.
  • strict warning: Declaration of views_handler_filter_search::exposed_validate() should be compatible with views_handler::exposed_validate(&$form, &$form_state) in /home3/scientl5/public_html/sciencebeingjournal.com/sites/all/modules/views/modules/search/views_handler_filter_search.inc on line 112.
  • strict warning: Declaration of views_handler_area::query() should be compatible with views_handler::query($group_by = false) in /home3/scientl5/public_html/sciencebeingjournal.com/sites/all/modules/views/handlers/views_handler_area.inc on line 81.
  • strict warning: Declaration of views_handler_area_text::options_submit() should be compatible with views_handler::options_submit($form, &$form_state) in /home3/scientl5/public_html/sciencebeingjournal.com/sites/all/modules/views/handlers/views_handler_area_text.inc on line 121.
  • strict warning: Non-static method view::load() should not be called statically in /home3/scientl5/public_html/sciencebeingjournal.com/sites/all/modules/views/views.module on line 1113.
  • strict warning: Declaration of views_handler_sort::options_validate() should be compatible with views_handler::options_validate($form, &$form_state) in /home3/scientl5/public_html/sciencebeingjournal.com/sites/all/modules/views/handlers/views_handler_sort.inc on line 165.
  • strict warning: Declaration of views_handler_sort::options_submit() should be compatible with views_handler::options_submit($form, &$form_state) in /home3/scientl5/public_html/sciencebeingjournal.com/sites/all/modules/views/handlers/views_handler_sort.inc on line 165.
  • strict warning: Declaration of views_handler_sort::query() should be compatible with views_handler::query($group_by = false) in /home3/scientl5/public_html/sciencebeingjournal.com/sites/all/modules/views/handlers/views_handler_sort.inc on line 165.
  • strict warning: Non-static method view::load() should not be called statically in /home3/scientl5/public_html/sciencebeingjournal.com/sites/all/modules/views/views.module on line 1113.
P. Suresh, R. Gangi Reddy, A. Ramesh Babu, B. Rajeswari, V. Sunitha and S. Nagendra

 Dept. of Chemistry, SCNR Govt. Degree College, Proddatur, YSR Kadapa

 Dept.of Geology and Geo informatics, Yogi Vemana University, YSR Kadapa

Dept. of Chemistry, Govt. Degree College, Yerraguntla, YSR Kadapa.

 

 The southwestern parts of Kadapa district are highlighted in Fluoride contamination. The Groundwater is the primary source of drinking water in this area and very few people are fed with water supply scheme. Geologically the limestone is the most predominant rocks of the study area these rocks have fluoride bearing minerals which are leached out to the groundwater and contribute high fluoride concentration in the groundwater. Total fifteen water samples are collected from different locations of Muddanur area and tested in the laboratory using Ion-Selective Electrode method. Fluoride levels in 93% of samples exceed the maximum permissible limits (1.5 mg/L) set by the ISO and WHO. The observed Fluoride levels in this area range from 1.43–2.54 mg/L with an average of 2.07 mg/L. The high fluoride levels may lead to morbidity of dental fluorosis .It is finally concluded that the Muddanur need a sound Fluoride management plan and the removal of fluoride from drinking water is advisable.

Keywords: Contamination; Dental fluorosis; Fluoride; Groundwater; Ion-Selective Electrode

Services for the Journal